Select languages to compare:

Labial
Coronal
Dorsal
Radical
Laryngeal
Bilabial
Labio-dental
Dental
Alveolar
Palato-alveolar
Retroflex
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
Pharyngeal
Epi-glottal
Glottal
Plosive
p           t̪ʰ                 c     k        
 
 
 
 
ʔ  
 
Nasal
  m                         ɲ     ŋ      
 
 
 
 
 
 
Trill
                           
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
Tap, Flap
                                               
Fricative
    f   v       s   z               x   ɣ               h    
Lateral fricative
 
 
 
 
                           
 
 
 
 
 
 
Approximant
              ɹ             j     w                  
Lateral approximant
 
 
 
 
                           
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lateral flap
 
 
 
 
                   
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
Labial
Coronal
Dorsal
Bilabial
Labio-dental
Dental
Alveolar
Palato-alveolar
Retroflex
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
Implosives
  ɓ           ɗ                    
 
Front
Near-front
Central
Near-back
Back
 
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
 
Front
Near-front
Central
Near-back
Back
 
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Selected languages: Vietnamese
UPSID number: 2303
Alternate name(s): N/A
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Vietmuong
The languages has 37 segments
Frequency index: N/A
Sounds:
Comments: Vietnamese is spoken primarily in Vietnam. Vietnamese (of Hanoi) has six tones distinguished by level, contour and laryngeal features. /p/ only occurs finally and can be analyzed as an allophone of implosive /b/, but no general rule that voiced initials pair with voiceless final stops can be formulated. Vowels in open syllables are followed by a consonantal offglide (/j/ after /i, e/ etc.). /j, w/ can follow most vowels, when no other consonant may appear, but some final consonants can follow the diphthongs with a low final element.
Sources: Canh, N-p. 1974. A contribution to the phonological interpretation of the diphthongs in modern Vietnamese. Acta Universitatis Carolinae-Philologica. Phonetica Pregensia IV: 133-142. Thompson, L.C. 1965. A Vietnamese Grammar. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
Use base consonants only

      CC, onset

      CC, onset (ordered by sonority)

      CC, coda

      CC, coda (ordered by sonority)

      CCC, onset

      CCC, onset (ordered by sonority)

      CCC, coda

      CCC, coda (ordered by sonority)

      CCCC, onset

      CCCC, onset (ordered by sonority)

      CCCC, coda

      CCCC, coda (ordered by sonority)

      CCCCC, onset

      CCCCC, onset (ordered by sonority)

      CCCCC, coda

      CCCCC, coda (ordered by sonority)