Select languages to compare:

Labial
Coronal
Dorsal
Radical
Laryngeal
Bilabial
Labio-dental
Dental
Alveolar
Palato-alveolar
Retroflex
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
Pharyngeal
Epi-glottal
Glottal
Plosive
p           t               k      
 
 
 
 
ʔ
 
Nasal
  m           n               ŋ    
 
 
 
 
 
 
Trill
                           
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
Tap, Flap
                                               
Fricative
                                            h  
Lateral fricative
 
 
 
 
                           
 
 
 
 
 
 
Approximant
                            ʍ w                
Lateral approximant
 
 
 
 
      l                    
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lateral flap
 
 
 
 
                   
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
Labial
Coronal
Dorsal
Bilabial
Labio-dental
Dental
Alveolar
Palato-alveolar
Retroflex
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
Affricates
                                 
 
Front
Near-front
Central
Near-back
Back
 
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Selected languages: Cacua
UPSID number: 6864
Alternate name(s): N/A
Classification: South American, Macro-Tucanoan
The languages has 22 segments
Frequency index: N/A
Sounds:
Comments: Cacua is spoken along tributaries of the Vaupes and Papuri rivers in the Vaupes region, Colombia. The language is tonal with two levels. Cathcart (1979) suggests that tonal distribution is better analyzed over a "foot"; four patterns contrast, HL, HHL, LH, L. A foot is usually one syllable, but may be up to 3 syllables. The segments analyzed as nasals here appear as nasals before or after a nasalized vowel, otherwise as prenasalized stops in word-initial position and medially after a nasalized vowel and /h, ?/, as prestopped nasals in final position, and as voiced plosives in other medial positions. Cathcart analyzes these segments as voiced stops, but the nasality in marginal positions is better accounted for if these are nasals which denasalize adjacent to an oral vowel (or consonant in medial environments).
Sources: Anderton, A. 1989. The Sounds of Cacua, based on data collected by the Summer Institute of Linguistics. Ms., UCLA. Cathcart, M. 1979. Fonologia del Cacua. Sistemos Fonologicos de Idiomas Colombianos. Summer Institute of Linguistics: Loma Linda, Colombia.