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Labial
Coronal
Dorsal
Radical
Laryngeal
Bilabial
Labio-dental
Dental
Alveolar
Palato-alveolar
Retroflex
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
Pharyngeal
Epi-glottal
Glottal
Plosive
p ⁿb         t ⁿd   ⁿd̠         k ⁿɡ    
 
 
 
 
ʔ
 
Nasal
                                   
 
 
 
 
 
 
Trill
                           
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
Tap, Flap
                                               
Fricative
                ʃ                           h  
Lateral fricative
 
 
 
 
                           
 
 
 
 
 
 
Approximant
                          j   w                
Lateral approximant
 
 
 
 
                           
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lateral flap
 
 
 
 
                   
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
Labial
Coronal
Dorsal
Bilabial
Labio-dental
Dental
Alveolar
Palato-alveolar
Retroflex
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
R-sounds
              R                    
 
Front
Near-front
Central
Near-back
Back
 
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Selected languages: Kaingang
UPSID number: 6808
Alternate name(s): N/A
Classification: South American, Macro-Ge
The languages has 27 segments
Frequency index: N/A
Sounds:
Comments: Kaingang is spoken in Parana state, Brazil. The series given here as prenasalized stops are pronounced as such in (1) word-medial syllable-initial position unless a nasalized vowel precedes, and (2) in syllable-final position unless a nasalized vowel precedes. In these positions with a preceding nasalized vowel and word-initially with a following nasalized vowel, simple nasalized consonants occur. Medially between oral vowels an oral stop onset occurs (i.e. VbmbV etc.).
Sources: Henry, J. 1935. A Kaingang text. International Journal of American Linguistics 8.3-4:172-218. Kindell, G. 1972. Kaingang phonemics. Appendix to Wiesemann, U. 1972. Die phonologische und grammatische Struktur der Kaingang-Sprache. Mouton: The Hague, Paris. Wiesemann, U. 1972. Die phonologische und grammatische Struktur der Kaingang-Sprache. Mouton: The Hague, Paris.