Select languages to compare:

Labial
Coronal
Dorsal
Radical
Laryngeal
Bilabial
Labio-dental
Dental
Alveolar
Palato-alveolar
Retroflex
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
Pharyngeal
Epi-glottal
Glottal
Plosive
p           t               k      
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nasal
  m           n                    
 
 
 
 
 
 
Trill
                           
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
Tap, Flap
              ɾ                                
Fricative
                                            h  
Lateral fricative
 
 
 
 
                           
 
 
 
 
 
 
Approximant
                          j   w                
Lateral approximant
 
 
 
 
                           
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lateral flap
 
 
 
 
                   
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
Labial
Coronal
Dorsal
Bilabial
Labio-dental
Dental
Alveolar
Palato-alveolar
Retroflex
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
Affricates
            ts                    
 
Front
Near-front
Central
Near-back
Back
 
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Selected languages: Yagua
UPSID number: 6839
Alternate name(s): N/A
Classification: S. American, Macro-Carib
The languages has 23 segments
Frequency index: N/A
Sounds:
Comments: Payne states that /p, m/ are often labialized [pw, mw] and /m, n/ are prenasalized stops before oral vowels. It is not clear if this means that [mbw] is normally found. On the assumption that prenasalization is optional the nasal segments are anayzed as nasal /m, n/. Yagua has basically a two-level tone system. Other analyses suggest the mid vowels might be derived from vowel coalescence, Payne describes these as phonemes with defective distribution.
Sources: Payne, D.L. 1985. Aspects of the Grammar of Yagua: A Typological Perspective. PhD Dissertation, UCLA.