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Labial
Coronal
Dorsal
Radical
Laryngeal
Bilabial
Labio-dental
Dental
Alveolar
Palato-alveolar
Retroflex
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
Pharyngeal
Epi-glottal
Glottal
Plosive
p b         t d           ɟ k k͡p ɡ ɡ͡b    
 
 
 
 
ʔ
 
Nasal
  m           n                    
 
 
 
 
 
 
Trill
              r            
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
Tap, Flap
                                               
Fricative
    f       s   ʃ                           h  
Lateral fricative
 
 
 
 
    ɬ                      
 
 
 
 
 
 
Approximant
                          j   w                
Lateral approximant
 
 
 
 
      l                    
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lateral flap
 
 
 
 
                   
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
Labial
Coronal
Dorsal
Bilabial
Labio-dental
Dental
Alveolar
Palato-alveolar
Retroflex
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
Implosives
  ɓ           ɗ                    
Ejective stops
                               
Ejective affricates
    pfʼ   tθʼ                          
 
Front
Near-front
Central
Near-back
Back
 
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Selected languages: Kotoko
UPSID number: 4373
Alternate name(s): N/A
Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic
The languages has 36 segments
Frequency index: N/A
Sounds:
Comments: Mandage or Magalbe dialect. Kotoko is spoken to the south of Lake Chad in the Nigeria-Cameroun-Chad border region. Kotoko is tonal, with 60% of all items low-toned. Extra high tone has limited distribution, a low-falling tone occurs only in final syllables. Bouny's analysis is tentative on several points. Higher mid and lower mid vowels may turn out to be predictable variants. Many consonant clusters including geminate plosives occur medially and are interpreted as heterosyllabic but sonorants can appear long syllable-finally. Bouny treats the voiceless ejective affricates as consonant sequences but they can appear initially and as C2 in -VC1C2V- where they initiate the second syllable. They also complete an ejective series which is otherwise missing labial and coronal terms. On the other hand, prenasalized stops intervocalically are divided VN.CV and so are treated here as sequences even in initial position.
Sources: Bouny, P. 1977. Inventaire phonetique d'un parler Kotoko: le Mandague de Mara. Etudes Phonologiques Chadiennes, Caprile.