Select languages to compare:

Labial
Coronal
Dorsal
Radical
Laryngeal
Bilabial
Labio-dental
Dental
Alveolar
Palato-alveolar
Retroflex
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
Pharyngeal
Epi-glottal
Glottal
Plosive
p b     t̪ʰ         ʈ ʈʰ ɖ     k ɡ    
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nasal
  m           n                    
 
 
 
 
 
 
Trill
              r            
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
Tap, Flap
                                               
Fricative
            s   ʃʲ                             ɦ
Lateral fricative
 
 
 
 
                           
 
 
 
 
 
 
Approximant
                          j   w                
Lateral approximant
 
 
 
 
      l                    
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lateral flap
 
 
 
 
                   
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
Labial
Coronal
Dorsal
Bilabial
Labio-dental
Dental
Alveolar
Palato-alveolar
Retroflex
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
Affricates
            ts tsʰ dz tʃʲ tʃʲʰ dʒʲ                
 
Front
Near-front
Central
Near-back
Back
 
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Selected languages: Kashmiri
UPSID number: 2018
Alternate name(s): N/A
Classification: Indo-European, Indic
The languages has 55 segments
Frequency index: N/A
Sounds:
Comments: Most Kashmiri consonants in final position may occur with distinctive palatal, central or back (rounded) releases. Zakharin (1974) sets up separate series of palatalized and labialized consonants to account for these. Bhat (1987) interprets these releases as resulting from diphthongs preceding the consonants. The solution preferred here is to treat these as instances of the short high vowels. Nasalized vowels occur only in medial position.
Sources: Bhat, R. 1987. A descriptive study of Kashmiri. Amar Prakashan Delhi. Kelkar, A.R. and Trisal, P.N. 1964. Kashmiri word phonology: a first sketch. Anthropological Linguistics 6/1: 13-22. Zakhar'in, B.A. 1974. Problemy fonologii iazyka kashmiri. Nauka, Moscow. Zakhar'in, B.A., Edel'man, D.I. 1971. Iazyk kashmiri. (Iazyki narodov Azii i Afriki). Nauka, Moscow.