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Labial
Coronal
Dorsal
Radical
Laryngeal
Bilabial
Labio-dental
Dental
Alveolar
Palato-alveolar
Retroflex
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
Pharyngeal
Epi-glottal
Glottal
Plosive
b         *tʰ *d             ɡ    
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nasal
  m           *n                    
 
 
 
 
 
 
Trill
              *r            
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
Tap, Flap
                                               
Fricative
ɸ β             ʃ           x                  
Lateral fricative
 
 
 
 
                           
 
 
 
 
 
 
Approximant
                          j                    
Lateral approximant
 
 
 
 
    *l̥ *l                    
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lateral flap
 
 
 
 
                   
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
Labial
Coronal
Dorsal
Bilabial
Labio-dental
Dental
Alveolar
Palato-alveolar
Retroflex
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
Sibilant fricatives
            *s                      
Affricates
                tʃʰ                
Sibilant affricates
            *tsʰ *dz                    
 
Front
Near-front
Central
Near-back
Back
 
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
 
Front
Near-front
Central
Near-back
Back
 
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Selected languages: Khalkha
UPSID number: 2166
Alternate name(s): N/A
Classification: Ural-Altaic, Mongolian
The languages has 33 segments
Frequency index: N/A
Sounds:
Comments: Khalkha is spoken primarily in Mongolia People's Republic but there are few speakers in USSR. All simple vowels appear both long and short. Khalkha Mongolian has a vowel harmony system probably based on pharyngeal cavity size (Svantesson 1985). /i, u, e, o/ have expanded pharynx ([+ATR]), though /i/ is neutral to vowel harmony in non-initial syllables. /g/ and /x/ are treated as allophones by Hangin (1968). Treatment of diphthongs is varied in sources.
Sources: Hangin, J.G. 1968. Basic Course in Mongolian (Indiana University Publications, Uralic and Altaic Series 73). Indiana University, Bloomington. Luvsanvandan, S. 1964. The Khalkha-Mongolian phonemic system. Acta Orientalia (Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae) 17: 175-85. Street, J.C. 1963. Khalkha Structure (Indiana University Publications, Uralic and Altaic Series 24). Indiana University, Bloomington. Svantesson, J. 1985. Vowel harmony shift in Mongolian. Lingua 67:283-327.