Select languages to compare:

Labial
Coronal
Dorsal
Radical
Laryngeal
Bilabial
Labio-dental
Dental
Alveolar
Palato-alveolar
Retroflex
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
Pharyngeal
Epi-glottal
Glottal
Plosive
b         *tʰ *tʷʰ *tː *d *dʷ             kʷʰ kːʷ ɡ ɡʷ    
 
 
 
 
ʔ
 
Nasal
  m           *n                    
 
 
 
 
 
 
Trill
                           
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
Tap, Flap
                                               
Fricative
              *z ʃ ʃʷ ʃʷː ʃː ʒ ʒʷ             χ χʷ χʷˁ χˁ χː χːʷ χːʷˁ χːˁ ʁ ʁʷ ʁʷˁ ʁˁ ħ ʕ     h  
Lateral fricative
 
 
 
 
    *ɬʷ *ɬʷː *ɬː                    
 
 
 
 
 
 
Approximant
                          j   w                
Lateral approximant
 
 
 
 
      *l                    
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lateral flap
 
 
 
 
                   
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
Labial
Coronal
Dorsal
Bilabial
Labio-dental
Dental
Alveolar
Palato-alveolar
Retroflex
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
Ejective stops
          *tʼ               kʷʼ      
Ejective affricates
            *tsʷʼ *tsʼ *tsːʼ *tɬʷʼ *tɬʼ   tʃʷʼ tʃʼ tʃːʼ               qχʷʼ qχʷˁʼ qχʼ qχˁʼ qχˁːʼ qχːʼ  
Sibilant fricatives
            *s *sʷ *sː *sːʷ *zʷ                    
Affricates
                tʃʰ tʃʷʰ               qχʷ qχʷˁ qχˁ  
Lateral affricates
        *tɬʰ *tɬʷʰ                          
Sibilant affricates
            *tsʰ *tsʷʰ                      
R-sounds
              *R                    
 
Front
Near-front
Central
Near-back
Back
 
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Selected languages: Archi
UPSID number: 2605
Alternate name(s): N/A
Classification: Caucasian
The languages has 91 segments
Frequency index: N/A
Sounds:
Comments: Archi is spoken in mountainous areas of the southern Dagestan ASSR, in the Soviet Union. Kodzasov (1977) treats pharyngealization as a 'suprasegmental' element which can be focussed on a vowel or a uvular consonant. Particularly in the latter case it seems preferable to treat it as segmental. Originally only velar and uvular consonants (and the long lateral fricative ?) had contrastive labialization but there are now a few words with distinctive labialization on most of the dental/alveolar or palato-alveolar obstruents. The voiced lateral fricative arises from morphological combination of a lateral ejective and a dental/alveolar stop but surface contrasts occur with other laterals.
Sources: Kodzasov, S.V. 1977. Fonetika Archinskogo Jazyka. Part 2 of A.E. Kibrik, S.V. Kodzasov, I.P. Olovjannikova, D.S. Samedov (eds.), Opyt Strukturnogo Opisanija Archinskogo Jazyka, Vol. 1, Izdatel'stvo Moskovskogo Universiteta, Moscow.