Select languages to compare:

Labial
Coronal
Dorsal
Radical
Laryngeal
Bilabial
Labio-dental
Dental
Alveolar
Palato-alveolar
Retroflex
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
Pharyngeal
Epi-glottal
Glottal
Plosive
p     b       t̪ʰ     t       ʈʰ   ɖ     ɟ   k     ɡ      
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nasal
  m             n         ɳ     ɲ     ŋ      
 
 
 
 
 
 
Trill
                           
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
Tap, Flap
              ɾ         ɽ                          
Fricative
    f         s   ʃ     ʂ   ʐ   ç         χ   ʁ           h    
Lateral fricative
 
 
 
 
                           
 
 
 
 
 
 
Approximant
      ʋ                     j   ɥ     w                  
Lateral approximant
 
 
 
 
      l       ɭ     ʎ          
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lateral flap
 
 
 
 
                   
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
Labial
Coronal
Dorsal
Bilabial
Labio-dental
Dental
Alveolar
Palato-alveolar
Retroflex
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
Affricates
                    ʈʂ   ʈʂʰ       cçʰ            
Sibilant affricates
            *ts   *tsʰ                        
 
Front
Near-front
Central
Near-back
Back
 
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
 
Front
Near-front
Central
Near-back
Back
 
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Selected languages: Mandarin NorwegianCALST
UPSID number: 2500 None
Alternate name(s): N/A N/A
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Sinitic Indo-European, Germanic, North
These languages have 32 segments 56 segments
Frequency index: N/A N/A
Sounds:
Comments: Mandarin is spoken in all of north of Changjiang River, a belt south of the Changjian from Qiujiang (Jiangxi) to Zhenjiang (jiangsu), Hubei except the southeastern corner Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, the northwestern part of Guangxi and the northwestern corner of Hunan. This file contains all speech sounds in the 8 dialects of the CALST project.
Sources: Chao, Y-R. 1968. A Grammar of Spoken Chinese. University of California Press, Berkeley. Cheng, C-C. 1973. A Synchronic Phonology of Mandarin Chinese. Mouton, The Hague. Dow, F.D.M. 1972. An Outline of Mandarin Phonetics. Faculty of Asian Studies, Australian National University, Canberra. (Hanyu Fangyan Gaiyao) 1960. [Outline of Chinese Dialects]. Wenzi Gaige Chubanshe, Beijing. Karllgren, B. 1915-26. Etudes sur la phonologie Chinoise. Archives d'Etudes Orientales 15: 294-297. Vanvik, A. 1972. A phonetic-phonemic analysis of Standard Eastern Norwegian. Norwegian Journal of Linguistics 26: 119-64.
Use base consonants only

      CC, onset

      CC, onset (ordered by sonority)

      CC, coda

      CC, coda (ordered by sonority)

      CCC, onset

      CCC, onset (ordered by sonority)

      CCC, coda

      CCC, coda (ordered by sonority)

      CCCC, onset

      CCCC, onset (ordered by sonority)

      CCCC, coda

      CCCC, coda (ordered by sonority)

      CCCCC, onset

      CCCCC, onset (ordered by sonority)

      CCCCC, coda

      CCCCC, coda (ordered by sonority)